In recognition of the strategic importance of Taiwan Province and the need to keep social order on the island, the "Taiwan Provincial Police Force" was established on November 1, 1947, following China's victory of the Sino-Japanese War and the restoration of Taiwan.
By February of the following year, recruitment was underway in provinces of China in the hope of attracting promising young people to the police force in Taiwan. (They later received Officer and Sergeant's training, respectively, at what was then the piteous horseracing field.) In January 1950, the Taiwan Provincial Police Force was re-named "The 1st Peace Preservation Police Corps of Taiwan Province" (The 1st Corps).
The 1st Corps moved its office to the current location in Shihpai, Taipei City. In 1958, and was assigned its Shihpai Branch Class training responsibility by the Taiwan Provincial Police Academy later in 1961. In 1980, the 1st Corps held its first specialized education and Foreign Police Officer classes to train the ROC police officers, as well as the officers of other friendly nation. In 1985, The 1st Corps was assigned to set up training bases for the mobile task force.
(The structure of the 1st Corps was expanded on March 28, 1988, by order of the Executive Yuan, to adapt to the ever-changing needs of society.)
On January 1, 1990, the 1st corps was put under the jurisdiction of the Nation Police Administration, and its members stationed in Chung Hua and Gun Shang became the 4th and 5th Police Corps, respectively. Today the 1st Corps' authorized strength is for 1,676 officers.